Female Anatomy  and How Contraceptives Work in Women

Cervix: The lower portion of the uterus, which  extends into the upper vagina. It produces mucus. Hormonal methods thicken this mucus, which helps prevent sperm from passing through the cervix. Some fertility awareness methods require monitoring cervical mucus. The diaphragm, cervical cap, and sponge cover the cervix so that sperm cannot enter. Vagina: Joins the outer sexual organs with the uterus. The combined ring is placed in the vagina, where it releases hormones that pass through the vaginal walls. The female condom is placed in the vagina, creating a barrier to sperm. Spermicides inserted into the vagina kill sperm. Fallopian tube: An egg travels along one of these tubes once a month, starting from the ovary. Fertilization of the egg (when sperm meets the egg) occurs in these tubes. Female sterilization involves This prevents sperm and egg from meeting. IUDs cause a chemical change that damages sperm before they can meet the egg in the fallopian tube. Womb (uterus): Where a fertilized egg grows and Where a fertilized egg grows and develops into a fetus. IUDs are placed in the uterus, but they prevent fertilization in the fallopian tubes. Copper-bearing IUDs also kill sperm as they move into the uterus. Ovary: Where eggs develop and one is released each month. The lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) and hormonal methods, especially those with estrogen, prevent the release of eggs. Fertility awareness methods require avoiding unprotected sex around the time when an  ovary releases an egg. Uterine lining (endometrium): Lining of the uterus, which gradually thickens and then is shed during monthly bleeding.