All forms of contraception can be safely used by adolescents and women at high risk for HIV, in the absence of any other medical or physiological contraindications, with the exception of spermicides (see Appendix D – Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use). Research has demonstrated the efficacy and safety of hormonal (either combined or progestin-only) and non-hormonal methods for women at risk for HIV infection, indicating that these methods will not increase the likelihood that a woman will contract HIV, with the exception of spermicides. Condoms (both male and female) are the only currently available dual protection method for preventing both STIs (including HIV) and unintended pregnancy. Additionally, counseling on the benefits of dual method use—condoms plus another form of contraception—helps clients make informed choices regarding the prevention of HIV, other STIs, and pregnancy (see Chapter 22 –  Sexually Transmitted Infections, Including HIV, section on Choosing a Dual Protection Strategy).